Preventing Bacterial Meningitis
The best way to prevent bacterial meningitis is through vaccination.
Vaccines prepare the immune system by exposing the body to a germ so that it is better able to fight an infection when it occurs. Vaccines contain either parts of a germ, live but weakened germs, or inactivated (dead) germs.
The vaccines available protect against the three major causes of bacterial meningitis, meningococcal disease, pneumococcal meningitis and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b.
Meningococcal vaccines protect against meningococcal disease
Polysaccharide vaccines are available to protect older children, adolescents and adults, outbreaks or situations of increased risk (military recruits, university students, travelers). May be used in conjunction with antibiotics. These include:
- Combined groups A and C vaccine
- Combined groups A-C-Y-W135 vaccine
- Meningococcal B
Conjugated vaccines exist for routine immunisation of infants, children and adolescents. These include:
- Conjugate group C vaccine
- Conjugate groups A-C-Y-W135 vaccine
Pneumococcal vaccines protect against pneumococcal meningitis
A number of polysaccharide vaccines exist for routine immunisation of people over 65 years of age, for babies and those most at risk. Please refer to the National Immunisation Plan.
Haemophilus Influenzae Type B/Hib
Hib vaccines protect against Haemophilus Influenzae Type B.
The Hib vaccine is on the National Immunisation Plan in Australia and is given at 2months, 4 months, 6 months and 18 months.
Conjugated Hib vaccines are highly effective in preventing Hib disease and are recommended for routine use in all infants.
Meningitis-preventing vaccines have proven to be extremely safe. Because they are composed of purified polysaccharide and protein, there is no possibility of contracting meningitis or any other infection from these vaccines.
Other things to remember include:
- Smoking can increase the risk of being a carrier of meningitis bacteria.
- Seasonal factors can also affect the incidence of bacterial meningitis. In temperate regions, the disease in the winter and early spring. In Sub-Saharan Africa, outbreaks occur in the dry season.
- Cases are more frequent in developing countries due to poverty, overcrowding and lack of access to vaccines.
- Anyone who has been in close contact with a meningitis patient within seven days before the onset of the disease is at increased risk of contracting it themselves. With meningococcal and Hib infections, preventative antibiotics are usually offered to close contacts. These reduce, but cannot eliminate, the risk of family members or other close contacts becoming ill.
Safe, effective vaccines are now available for many common types of meningitis and new vaccines are in development all the time.
Australia's Immunisation Plans
|National Immunisation Plan for Australia||National Immunisation Program Schedule|
|Australian Capital Territory||Immunisation Schedule (156Kb)|
|New South Wales||Immunisation Schedule (567Kb)|
|Northern Territory||Childhood Immunisation Schedule (662Kb) Adult and Special Groups Immunisation Schedule (529Kb)|
|Queensland||Immunisation Schedule under 10 years (670Kb) Immunisation Schedule 10 to 19 years (355Kb)|
|South Australia||» View Childhood Immunisation Schedule|
|Tasmania||Immunisation Schedule (213Kb) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Immunisation Schedule (213Kb)|
|Victoria||Immunisation Schedule (77Kb)|
|Western Australian||Childhood, Adolescent and Adult Immunisation Schedule (102kb)|